The sectoral composition of economy, demographic pattern and occupational pattern very clearly indicate that Jehanabad district like the State is a predominantly agricultural economy. The attributes of the agricultural economy of the district also very clearly imply dominance of low-income agricultural sector and consequently, low per capita income and high poverty. These underscore the central importance of agricultural sector in the district. These further reveal the critical need for integration of agricultural economy with the national economy. This offers opportunities but this has been manifested in the economic backwardness. The basic strength of the district's economy on the short to medium term has, therefore, to be built around the primary sector-agriculture and allied sectors.
What is viewed in the analysis made earlier that constraints to agricultural development inthe district ranges from technological constraint to socio-economic constraints. The constraints to agricultural development may be visualized as follows :
1. Land Resourse
The Jehanabad district fall in the draught category but its frequency and affected area is not severe as being evidenced in other districts of South Bihar plains namely, Munger, Rohtas, Bhojpur, Gaya and Aurangabad. According to an estimation by the Central Water Commission minor part of area is drought prone. Drought in the district is, not severe. However, an analysis of sources of irrigation indicates that tubewell is the main sources of irrigation accounting for 64.62 per cent of net irrigated area. This is not good strategy from the topographic point of view. In this context, the traditional sources of surface irrigation such as 'ahars and pynes' needs to be promoted. The dominance of small farms has already been refered to. This is compounded by the existence of fragmentation of holding despite long history, attempts to address these structural constraints have not been successful. The XI Plan must give high priority to consolidation programme (Chakbandi). Further, substantial proportion of the land under culturable and unculturable wasteland categories are under common lands. In the absence of any development efforts, these areas have either been appropriated by the influential elite or are indiscriminately exploited. The government has made some efforts to these areas to benefit the poor in the country side but a serious view has to be taken on utilization of these resources from the point of view of efficiency as well as sustainability.
2. Water resourse
The district has good rainfall also being endowed with water resources, inadequate management often turns to be a scourge. A well designed and time-bound management programme on this is essential. It has been noted earlier that surface irrigation systems in the district present a good picture. There is need to use the potential of good rainfall with the help of rain-fed technology and other water conservation measures. Also, ground-water exploitation has been playing a major role in irrigation sector in the district. As such, simulating ground water development can also play an important role in agriculture development. The scientific exploitation of ground water is crucial to kick start agriculture development in the district.
3. Seed Sector
Unavailability of good quality High Yielding Varities of seeds is one of the major constraints to agricultural production in the district. This problem is more prone to small categories of farmers due to their inaccessibility to seed resources on account of either lack of financial resoures or unavability to certified seeds. Through the use of modern verities of seeds for rice, wheat and maize is modererately good but the situtation is deplorable in case of pulses, oilseeds, vegetables and speciality crops like spices, aromoatic medicinal plants, and even fish seeds have to be procured from local sources or traders. The State seeds corporation is not able to meet the demand for seeds either quantatively or qualitatively. The extension system has also neglected these enterprises and there is lack of awareness among the farmers regarding improved varieties of seeds. Unless the seed sector is revamped in the district, technological dynamism can not come about. Future strategies will have to be designed to promote improved seed production and its distribution with the help of people-private partnership.
The fertilizer response environment in the state as well as in the district is very favourable soil, rainfall and other climatic factors are good conductive. Yet fertilizer consumption in the district is low, i.e., 88.93 kg per hectare as compared to 178.6 kg in Punjab, 141.6 kg in Haryana, 108 kg in Uttar Pradesh, 120 Kg in West Bengal, 152 kg in Tamil Nadu and 153 kg in West Bengal, 152 Kg in Tamil Nadu and 153 Kg in Andhra Pradesh. The differential is attributed to infrastructural inadequacies, inefficient distribution system and unscrupulous private trade. The Policy strategy requires that there should be availability of chemical fertilizers of good quality at right time at right price. This needs focus on institutional arrangement for making fertilizers to farmers. In this regard co-operative institutions are needed to be revamped.
The reason for agricultural backwardness in the district can better be understood from the above analysis. Poor soil productivity, drought recurrence, fragmentation of land holdings, increase in the area of low use of fertilizer and pesticides, in adequate marketing and storage facility, transport and electricity bottlenecks, poor processing facilities, lack of knowledge on scientific cultivation and post harvest techniques, lack of infrastructure particularly from horticulture crops.
However, the Jehanabad district has vast scope for development of agriculture and allied sectors. Its strength towards this direction are favourable agro-climatic conditions with the help of which varieties of crops can be growth in the district with high productivity. In this regard, one of the important approach conceived is to go for public-private partnership in certain critical areas. The proposed schemes under this are following :